Cleaning Carbies and Pistons

If you are a karting or motor bike fan, or a backyard mower mechanic then it’s likely that you’ll know the pain of old fuel that has turned into varnish.  Bet you wear the same despondent look when you see a blackened piston.

For the home mechanic, this is probably the most useful function of an ultrasonic cleaner – to clean out that gunked up carbie.  The great thing is that it can do the job without resorting to those seriously caustic solvents.

Even so, there are still two schools of thought on what additive to use in the ultrasonic tank.  You guessed it – green vs more aggressive.  We caution against using substances that will require the operator to put on the protective clothing and respirator and hold their breath.

Option 1 – More Aggressive

In the industry, we know of guys who still swear by the caustic products, which is fine as long as they tell us that they are using them before we pay a visit.

If they are using CT14 (generally marketed as truck or bilge wash) then this is a safe option.  The safety data sheet on CT14 says that it is non-flammable and in other respects pretty inoffensive.  Of course, you won’t want to drink it, but otherwise it’s about as safe as you can find, while still giving good results.  For carbies, half a cup in a 12 litre tank is as much as you need.  When last we checked, you could get a 5 litre concentrate at Supercheap Auto for a touch under $40.  Similar price from Repco.  As long as the tank is heated adequately (around 70C+), it should only take about 15 minutes to clean a dirty carbie, more or less.  A hint though – it can take quite a while to get the tank up to that temperature.  We would recommend using the cleaning function as well as the heater, and put the lid on.  That way you won’t be waiting around twiddling your thumbs.   Brett, our customer in the engine reconditioning business, recommends giving it a good blow out with compressed air after cleaning, just to make sure the gunk has come off and been sent to keeper.

For pistons, he says it might take a couple of hours to get them clean, especially the top – really bad ones can be left to soak in CT14 overnight – the next morning you should find the carbon has softened and the ultrasonic will have an easier job of finishing it off.

Back to the ‘not so gentle’ products – some are also flammable. Cool.  Because the flash point can be lowered after using an ultrsonic cleaner. Now we have the worst of both worlds.  It is worth noting very prominently, that flammable products do NOT belong in an ultrasonic cleaner, whether heated or not.  If you must use these products, then do yourself, and your loved ones, a favour.  Soak the carbie or piston in a tank well away from the ultrasonic.  Only after the substance has evaporated off, or has been thoroughly rinsed off, should you place the item in the ultrasonic for the next stage of cleaning.  High powered cleaning at 60C in an ultrasonic is a formula for pyrotechnics, not safety.

A very popular solvent is good old acetone, found in almost every woman’s survival kit.  As gossip girl will happily tell – acetone is great to remove nail polish.  It is also seriously flammable stuff.  Play it safe.  Wait until the acetone evaporates off the piston or carbie before placing in the ultrasonic tank for the perfect clean.

Option 2 – Go the Green. 

Now, the green alternative is to try products that are kinder to people and to the environment when the cleaning is over.  On our list of more environmentally (and people) friendly products are Simple Green and Kenco SHIFT-IT Heavy Duty Cleaner.  Simple Green is very popular in the USA where it is widely available.  It’s a biodegradable product that can be bought on the internet from the Australian distributor (shipped from Adelaide).  We have also seen it at Bunnings and Blackwoods – so it might be worth a trip down to your local store (or check them on line), to save on freight by picking it up when you buy your other hardware staples.  NB. There is a range of Simple Green cleaning products – you want the industrial strength cleaner.

Simple Green ships as a concentrate, so one bottle goes a long way.  We have customers who are very big in reconditioning carbies who swear by it.  At the other end of the spectrum we have an elderly customer painstakingly restoring his beloved vintage roadster in WA, who is likewise a big fan of Simple Green for its effectiveness and for its reputation for safety.

The Kenco product does not appear to be as widely used by our customers – perhaps it is just less well known.  Anyway, Paul the grubhunter uses it to good effect, and is a big supporter of both its effect and kindness to worker and environment.  You can get it at the regular auto product stores – about $12 for a 750ml spray bottle – although larger bottles (up to 5L) are also available.

As with many of these cleaning tasks, there is no magic formula for the time the cleaning job will take.  Let yourself be guided by common sense.  Time in the cleaner is a function of 5 factors:

  1. Power of the machine (ie Watts)
  2. Frequency of your ultrasonic (lower frequency (typically 20-25kHz) has more ‘oomph’, but not so good for detail – eg blind holes and thread vs higher frequency (40-45kHz) which is better for fine detail and more consistent across a surface and better for gentle cleaning results)
  3. Temperature – as a general rule, 60C will be the best operating temperature for an ultrasonic cleaner, although this temperature is too hot for some materials.  Be aware that at 60C evaporation can be faster than you might think.  So keep an eye on the fluid level in the tank and always top up fluids as required (Think SAFE.  Turn unit off and disconnect from power first).  Please do not even THINK of putting a flammable product in an ultrasonic and running the unit at 60C.  The cavitation effect helps to lower the ignition point of fluids – don’t say you weren’t warned!
  4. Amount of Dirty Gear you place in the ultrasonic tank.  The higher the surface area to be cleaned, the slower will be the result.  and
  5. Type of Contamination what is on it – eg burned carbon vs light soiling.

So, you need to be flexible and keep an eye on how it is going.   Just remove the item for examination about every 10-15 minutes, so that you know when it’s done, and you can move on to your next subject for cleaning.  That approach will also help you to maintain the correct fluid level in the tank, so you don’t damage the ultrasonic or the heater in the process.

NB. Simple Green needs to be used carefully with aluminium products, as it may cause oxidation if contact is extended.  Remove item from the solution as soon as it is cleaned, and ensure that all traces of Simple Green are rinsed thoroughly off your carbie.  If you see evidence of aluminium oxide you can remove it with an aluminium polish like Autosol or Briteshine.

Dual Frequency or Intello-Cleaning.  If you are using an ultrasonic with dual frequencies, we would suggest running it first on low frequency for 30 minutes to blast the heavy duty crud.  Examine the item after first cycle and extend low frequency cleaning to continue ‘blast mode’, or switch to high frequency operation to ensure that fine detail areas are covered.  Adjust cleaning based on the cleaning result you experience.

If you are using an Intelloclean or similar sweep style ultrasonic cleaner the process is simple.  Select your sweep function and leave the machine to cycle through low and high frequencies for about 30 minutes.  You can also use the Turbo function, but go easy if the item you are cleaning is a soft alloy.  Examine the item and repeat as necessary.

If you remember that an ultrasonic cleaner of 100W will take 10 hours to consume a kW/hr of electricity, and that kWhr still only costs about 27cents, it is a very cheap cleaning process.  Add say 25 cents of Simple Green or Kenco liquid to the tank and you are looking at petty cash indeed.  HINT: Try the shooter’s tip – use a Pyrex beaker or jug to hold your parts inside the basket of the ultrasonic’s tank.  That way you can ration the Simple Green/Kenco or caustic brew to just treat the carbie or piston while the rest of the tank is filled with tap water. A final caution – no flammable items in the ultrasonic tank.

  1. Always turn machine off before removing item from tank for inspection.  Never permit fingers, hands, or any other body part to enter the liquid of the tank while the ultrasonic cleaner is operating.  Damage to living tissue will result, even if you cannot see it.
  2. A little reality check.  There are some videos on you tube that show a dirty motor going in, and, hey presto!  a brand new looking motor emerges.  We find these a bit deceptive, as they imply that an ultrasonic cleaner will clean and polish and restore a motor to brand new condition on their own.  There is often no indication of how long the motor has been worked on, how powerful the ultrasonic cleaner, and what, if any, sort of additive or solvent is used in the video.  An ultrasonic cleaner will clean, but carboned metal normally requires an additive to help break it down.  And polishing – well just like with jewellery – this is an additional process.  Once an item is clean it can then be polished.
Liquid Glass Oz designs quality ultrasonic cleaners for commercial operations in Australia and New Zealand (N18973)

Cleaning Fired Brass Cartridge Cases

Are you a recreational shooter who wants to reuse his fired dirty cartridge cases?

Whether you want to save money or just get the satisfaction of repacking your own ammo, you know that you have to make those cartridges perfectly clean for an accurate firing result.

Over the years shooters have used a variety of methods to try to get their cases back to that straight out of the box look.  Enthusiasts have tried tumblers, electric drills and all sorts of caustic concoctions. More recently, the move to ultrasonic cleaners has gained momentum.

Ultrasonic cleaners have a number of advantages over these other brass cleaning methods:

  • Low operating costs  – electricity cost for ten hours operation is only about 25 cents
  • Kind to the environment – do we really need any more toxic chemicals around us when we’re cleaning, and where do we put them when the cleaning is done?
  • Simple to use
  • Clean and relatively quiet (just try talking anywhere near a vibratory tumbler)
  • Quick, yet thorough, and most importantly
  • Safe – certainly perfectly safe, compared to the hazards to your fingers and hands from cleaning with an electric drill and wire brush!

Using ultrasonic cleaners, shooters have cleaned, restored and reused cartridges that have been fired four, five, six, or even more times.  And what´s more, shooters claim these carts are as good as new.  We have seen the results ourselves and have no doubt that the claims are true.  So, what’s the procedure?

Step 1 Gather the Ingredients and Tools

You’ll need the following items:

  • an ultrasonic cleaner (preferably 100 Watts power, but machines of 50 Watts will still do an acceptable job, if a bit slower to get there)
  • vinegar solution (half water/vinegar)
  • dishwashing detergent (any brand, but we use Morning Fresh – only a squirt will do)
  • Pyrex or glass beakers x 2
  • baking soda – you need to neutralise the acid in the vinegar after cleaning – this is important.  If you skip this step you may start to de zinc the brass.
  • distilled water – to rinse the cases off, so they can dry without marks or deterioration from the chemicals in the tap water
  • hair dryer/oven (not microwave)
  • your already fired cartridge cases, of course.

Step 2 Setting Up

Detailed instructions for setting up your ultrasonic cleaner are available if required.

  • Put aside your fired cartridge cases.
  • Set up your ultrasonic cleaner in a safe place, well away from traffic areas.  Many shooters already use a shed or workshop away from the living zone of the house (legacy of the noisy tumbler).  This is a good place to stay, especially if you want to keep this gear away from children.
  • Fill cleaning tank to about 2/3 level with normal tap water and insert the cleaning basket and just a single drop of dishwashing liquid.  Into the beaker pour the vinegar solution plus a tiny drop of dishwashing detergent, up to about 2/3 level – you will need to leave space for the cases that you will put in later (obviously the cases will displace the vinegar solution).  Don’t worry. The ultrasonic waves will pass unimpeded from the tank water, through the beaker, and to the cartridge cases to perform the cleaning you desire.
  • Place beaker inside the tank basket, making sure you top up the water level in the tank to the MIN water level mark.   Damage to the unit’s heater pad can occur if you allow the water level to drop too far. NB Many units will show the recommended MIN liquid level for safe operation.

Step 3 Doing the Cleaning 

  • Degas.   You want to make the cleaner run as effectively as it can.  This occurs when the tank is at the correct temperature and when the air has been removed from the liquid medium.  If your ultrasonic is heated, set the temperature at 60C.  If your tank is not heated follow the instructions in our blog.  Then run the cleaner through a normal cycle of between 5 and 10 minutes. The dissolved air should now be purged from the tank, so the ultrasonic effect can clean as well as possible.
  • Cleaning Cycle 1.  Add your fired cases to the beaker – carefully, since the tank will be hot.  Run the unit through a full cleaning cycle (10 – 15 mins). NB While the cleaning cycle is on prepare the 2nd beaker. Add 1 tsp baking soda to 2/3 beaker of tap water and mix well.
  • Cleaning Cycle 2. Carefully remove the beaker from the tank and rinse the cases under running water (preferably using a metal sieve).  Note improvement in appearance of the cases before adding cases to the 2nd beaker, as ultrasonic cleaners do vary in power. You may sometimes need to return the cases to the beaker, for an additional run through the vinegar/detergent solution.  If you are satisfied with cleaning progress, add the cases to 2nd beaker and place inside basket. Run ultrasonic an additional 10 – 15 mins cycle. Remove the cleaned cases from the beaker and rinse under tap.  At this stage cases will usually be clean enough to repack.  If any residual contamination  is present (unlikely, but remotely possible) then return cases to the beaker, with tap water and run ultrasonic a further 10 mins. Make sure you turn the machine OFF as soon as the cleaning is complete and reset the thermostat on the heater to zero C.  This could save the cost of expensive repairs to your heater, or even the ultrasonic transducers, if the liquid level is allowed to drop too far.
  • Distilled Water Soak.  Soak cleaned cases in beaker for 15 mins.

Step 4 The Moment of Truth

Remove cases from beaker and strain with a sieve.  They are now clean and just need to be dried for reuse.  Shooters commonly use a hair dryer, conventional oven or a drying rack to dry the cases completely.  Your environment and circumstances will dictate what is best for you.

  • A drying rack is fine if the weather is warm, but even under ideal conditions it may take a couple of days for the cases to be completely dry.
  • Oven drying is a great way to dry quantities of cases, and it is quick.  You should be able to completely dry several trays of cases in 45 minutes at 100C.  Just avoid trying this in a microwave oven.
  • Hair Dryer works well, especially for small batches, but a bit fiddly for serious quantities.
  1. You can streamline the process by using Cleaning Cycle 1 as your degas step.  This first cycle won’t be quite as effective as later, but it will still be very good.  Anyway, you are paying for the electricity – you may as well put it to use.
  2. Cleaning cycle times are estimates only.  How many cartridge cases you can clean in a given timeframe will vary from machine to machine.  It depends on tank capacity, power (wattage) of the unit, and of course, the size of the cases (the more volume per case the slower cleaning will be).  The more powerful the unit the more cases it will clean at the same time, but of course, the tank has to be big enough to hold them.  If you overload a machine with dirty cases you will quickly notice a change in the sound of the cleaner in operation (it will sound ‘dead’ as it becomes overloaded).  As an experiment, try running your ultrasonic with just plain water, then listen for the difference in sound when you add a large rock or house brick.
  3. Typically, the power of an ultrasonic cleaner increases in proportion to its tank capacity.  However, you can sometimes find a large unit which is quite under powered.  A tank of 2L capacity will appear underpowered with a 50 Watt transducer.  At 2.5L we recommend 100 Watts, and over 3.5L 150 Watts.
  4. The smaller type of plastic ultrasonic cleaner can still clean cartridge cases effectively.  However, these units are generally designed to have a break between cleaning cycles, otherwise the transducer could be overtaxed and fail.  You can still use them, but you need to recognise their limitations.  Follow the user instructions and your machine will last longer.
  5. The procedure provided in this blog has been tested by shooters in Australia under normal Australian conditions.  The products required to perform the cleaning process are readily available and cheap.  They are also safe to operator and the environment.
  6. If you have bought a new machine to clean your fired cart cases we recommend you test it first.  Click here for our blog on testing the function of an ultrasonic cleaner.  NB We strongly recommend the use of a surge protector to prevent power spikes damaging your ultrasonic cleaner.
  7. Just to recap – don’t forget to add baking soda as per procedure.  De zincing of your brass looks ugly and might even be dangerous when you shoot.  Take care of your gear.
Liquid Glass Oz designs quality ultrasonic cleaners for commercial operations in Australia and New Zealand (N18973)

Setting Up Your Ultrasonic Cleaner

OK.  You’ve bought your new ultrasonic cleaner and you want to know how to set it up.  There’s a trick to doing most things – and this is no exception.  A little time spent following a procedure could save you a lot of money!

Protecting Your Investment

Inspect the box for damage before opening it.  If outside shows any sign of rough treatment during transport, take photos – they might be needed to show the supplier or freight company for a claim.

  1. Take more photos of the unit and anything inside the box if they have been damaged in transit.  Take a clear image of the unit’s serial number.
  2. Inspect contents. Take particular note of the tax invoice and the unit’s user manual/operations guide.  Often the items supplied will be specified in the user manual.  Check you have them all.  If not, contact the supplier ASAP and ask for anything that seems to be missing.
  3. Tax Invoice  A valid tax invoice will show GST included in the sale, the supplier’s Australian Business Number (ABN) and address in Australia.  The tax invoice is a valuable document which should be kept safe and produced (or copied) if you ever have any warranty issues.   Some sellers on Ebay will provide a tax invoice which is generated through their system.  As long as the document meets the requirements set out in the New Tax System (GST legislation) it doesn’t matter what it looks like.  This contrasts with invoices/shipping documents that make no mention of the words tax invoice, GST included in the purchase and the supplier’s ABN.  We recommend caution if dealing with a supplier who ships cleaners without a valid tax invoice, because it is extremely unlikely that you are dealing with a registered Australian business who can be forced to adhere to Australian consumer protection laws.

Product Safety and Compliance

Once you know you have everything that’s supposed to be included, you can move on further.  The next step is about checking your unit is safe for you and your staff.

  1. Check the power lead provided with the unit has an approved Australian/New Zealand style plug – sometimes suppliers will provide one that fits in the socket, but it does not have the insulation on the top pins (normally black).  Plugs without visible insulation on the top two pins are the ‘old style’ which ceased being approved for sale in the late 1990s.
  2. Check for C Tick label.  Electrical equipment needs a C Tick label to identify the authorised supplier and to show that the supplier can prove the device meets Australian/NZ EMC requirements.  By law ALL ultrasonic cleaners sold in Australia and New Zealand must have this label, whether imported or manufactured locally.  They also require the supplier’s electrical code (usually a number starting with letter N or V, representing the state the company is registered in).   NB If the unit does not have a C Tick and the supplier’s electrical code, then it is illegal for sale in Australia and New Zealand and it may also be unsafe.  Contact your local Department of Fair Trading and request a refund from the supplier.
  3. Check power supply.  Most quality units will be manufactured for 240Volt mains supply.   Many units will state 220 or 230 Volts, or some range between these.  The closer to 240 Volts the better.   If the unit is labelled less than 220 Volts its working life can be much less than one made for 240.  NB Do NOT attempt to use a device made for US power supply (110 Volts).  Return it f or replacement or refund.
  4. Use a surge protector. Even robust commercial ultrasonic cleaners can fail due to power surges.  Like computers, these days, ultrasonic cleaners all have electronic components which can easily burn out when power spikes occur.  We recommend taking sensible precautions, like using a quality surge protector at all times and to remove the device from the power outlet during electrical storms,  or when you are absent from the workplace..

User/Operating Manual

Most suppliers will provide a user or operating manual.  Manuals from quality suppliers units will be in plain English that the average person can understand.  Often the manual will also specify the unit’s warranty and support arrangements.   We recommend against items that must be sent overseas for warranty service.  The following points are obvious, but we’ve all seen the line – if all else fails read the manual.

  1. BEFORE you connect the unit to the power supply, or attempting to use it ensure that you read the manual and understand it.
  2. Follow the instructions in the manual.  If you don’t, often the manufacturer’s warranty will not apply.  It could be an expensive mistake.

Next Step

After you have set up your machine as per supplier’s user manual, you should immediately test its function.   Run a simple foil test to satisfy yourself you have a true ultrasonic cleaner, not a dud.  If the machine fails the test contact the supplier and have it replaced/get a credit.


  1. EMC is Electro Magnetic Compatibility. When a product shows the C Tick symbol it tells the consumer that the supplier has proven that the device meets the Australian/New Zealand regulations for EMC.  A product that does not meet EMC rules may interfere with radio and other communications, including devices such as pace makers and other sensitive life saving equipment.
  2. The supplier’s code (usually a number starting with letter N or V) on an electrical product tells the consumer that the supplier has tested the device for compliance with the Australian/New Zealand regulations for electrical safety.  The CE label often seen on electrical products has not value in Australian/NZ.  It is easily confused with an almost identical CE label which represents Chinese Export.
Liquid Glass Oz designs quality ultrasonic cleaners for commercial operations in Australia and New Zealand (N18973)